Caffè crema (Italian: cream coffee) refers to two different coffee drinks: an old name for espresso (the 1940s and 1950s), and a long espresso drink primarily served in Germany, Switzerland and Austria and northern Italy (the 1980s onwards), along the Italian/ Swiss and Italian/ Austrian border. As a term, it generally means "espresso", while in technical discussions, referring to the long drink, it may more narrowly be referred to as Swiss caffè crema. Variant terms include "crema caffè" and the hyperforeignism "café crema" – "café" is French, while "caffè" and "crema" are Italian, thus "café crema" mixes French and Italian.
Ristretto: (Ristretto in Italian means "restricted, shrunk or short”) It is the richest and most concentrated espresso drink where less water but the same amount of coffee is used to make the beverage and creates a less bitter espresso. The extraction time is shortened producing as little as 3 oz of liquid per serving. Pure and intense espresso served in a demitasse cup.
Cortado: means "cut" in Spanish so the double shot espresso served in a demetesse glass supported with a metal handle is "cut" with an equal part of hot milk, making it in between the size and strength of a macchiato and a cappuccino. It is popular in Spain and Portugal, as well as throughout Latin America and Cuba, where it is drunk in the afternoon. Variations include more froth on top than a traditional cortado and occasionally with different names such as Piccolo or Gibraltar. Thanks to Ryan Cerbus for the entry.
Affogato: This is a term that literally means 'drowned'. It is the description of a shot of separately served espresso that is later poured over a the top of a scoop of vanilla ice cream or gelato. This beverage is usually served in a short drink glass and is a Italian desert favourite. Popular Affogatos include Vanilla Affogato, Mocha Affogato, and Peppermint Affogato.
You made a good point that clicked for me. I used to like my coffee very bold BUT then I added tons of stevia and half and half to mask the taste. Now, I’m starting to drink my coffee black (day 2 – eeek) and your comment made me realize that I don’t actually enjoy bitter tasting coffee – if I did I wouldn’t be adding sweeteners. Thanks, I’m going to try a weaker blend. :)
Caffè Americano or simply Americano (the name is also spelled with varying capitalization and use of diacritics: e.g. Café Americano, Cafe Americano, etc.) is a style of coffee prepared by adding hot water to espresso, giving a similar strength to but different flavor from brewed coffee. The drink consists of a single or double-shot of espresso combined with between 1 and 16 fluid ounces (30–470 ml) of hot water. The strength of an Americano varies with the number of shots of espresso added. In the United States, "Americano" is used broadly to mean combining hot water and espresso in either order. Variations include long black and lungo.
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Cuban tradition is to drink coffee strong and sweet, often mixing the sugar with the coffee beans before brewing. The traditional method of brewing coffee was a filter method using a cloth cone; this has mostly been replaced with an aluminium cafetera or coffeemaker—in tourist areas some cafés will have an espresso machine, though espresso machines are expensive, so espresso is not a common drink for most Cubans. Though quality coffee is grown in Cuba, it is expensive, so most Cubans drink coffee imported from Puerto Rico, and often mixed with ground peas. The Cuban habit of brewing coffee with sugar has spread to Miami, West Palm Beach, Tampa and the Keys, in Florida, US, where espresso is the preferred brewing method and an espresso brewed with sugar is termed Café Cubano, Cuban coffee, Cuban espresso, cafecito, Cuban pull, or Cuban shot. Sometimes demerara sugar is used, and sometimes the sugar (white or brown) is not brewed with the coffee, but is placed in the cup as the coffee is dripped into it, then stirred into a froth. Variations on the Miami café Cubano are with a splash of milk - cortadito; and with steamed milk - café con leche.
Women who drank more than 4 cups of coffee per day, had a 20 per cent lower risk of becoming depressed. The reason being the caffeine, a natural stimulant which stimulates the central nervous system and increases dopamine levels  . An increase in dopamine levels removes the symptoms of depression and anxiety  . And due to this people are less likely to commit suicide .
So I’m doing Keto and intermittent fasting so I’m trying to make the switch. I’ve gone to a Guatamalian lightly freshly roasted coffee; burr ground by hand just before I pour the water over the grounds and wait 45 sec to let it bloom; then pouring the rest of the water through it. I’m still finding it too bitter. I used 6 tablespoons for ~ 3, 8 oz cups. Should I try and adjust my grind, or the amount of coffee I add to the water to try and tamp down the strong bitter taste?
The method of preparing these three black coffees, namely Black eye, Red eye and Dead eye, are similar except the proportion of espresso added in each. These 3 black coffees are prepared by adding shots of espresso with dripped coffee and do not contain sugar or milk. In “Black Eye Coffee” two shots of espresso are added with dripped coffee; in Red eye, a single shot of espresso is added with dripped coffee and in Dead eye coffee, three shots of espresso are added with dripped coffee.
Increasing age leads to decreased cognitive skills and increased risk of Dementia, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. Having black coffee in the morning enhances the brain function. Black coffee helps the brain to stay active and thus helps in boosting the memory power. It also keeps the nerves active which in turn keeps dementia at bay. Studies say regular consumption of black coffee reduces risk of Alzheimer’s by 65 per cent and Parkinson’s by 60 per cent.