Coffee drinks are made by brewing hot water (or much less commonly, cold water) with ground coffee beans. The brewing is either done slowly by drip or filter, French press or cafetière, percolator, etc., or done very quickly under pressure by an espresso machine, where the coffee is termed "espresso"—slow-brewed coffees are generally called simply "coffee". All coffee drinks are based on either coffee or espresso, in different strengths; some drinks have milk or cream added, some use steamed milk, cream, plant based milk, or foamed milk, some have flavorings or sweeteners, some have alcoholic liqueurs added, some are combinations of coffee with espresso or tea.
According to the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) there is an ideal method for making coffee, called the Golden Cup Award, which will scientifically yield favorable and repeatable results. You should use between 3.25 and 4.25 ounces of coffee grounds per 64 ounces of water (90-120 grams of coffee to 1.9 liters of water). The water temperature must be at 200 degrees Fahrenheit (+ or - 2; that's equivalent to 93 Celcius) when it comes in contact with the grounds. Lastly, the total dissolved solids (TDS) measured in any given brew tastes best to most people when it falls between 1.15 and 1.35 percent.
A Carajillo is a Spanish drink combining coffee with brandy, whisky, anisette, or rum. It is typical of Spain and according to folk etymology, its origin dates to the Spanish occupation of Cuba. The troops combined coffee with rum to give them courage (coraje in Spanish, hence "corajillo" and more recently "carajillo"). There are many different ways of making a carajillo, ranging from black coffee with the spirit simply poured in to heating the spirit with lemon, sugar and cinnamon and adding the coffee last. A similar Italian drink is known as caffè corretto. The American version of a Spanish Coffee uses a heated sugar-rimmed Spanish coffee mug with 3/4 ounce of rum and 1/2 ounce of triple sec. The drink is then flamed to caramelize the sugar, with 2 ounces of coffee liqueur then added to put out the flame, and then topped off with 3 to 4 ounces of coffee, and whipped cream.
Hammerhead: A coffee drink only served in the USA. It is an American term for a shot of espresso in a coffee cup that is topped up with drip-filtered coffee. As Kris Rosvold explains in the comments: In Oregon, the hammerhead is usually known as a red eye and uses 2 shots of espresso topped up in a 16oz travel mug with drip coffee. It's also sometimes called a "shot in the dark".
Kelsey Casselbury is a freelance writer and editor based in central Maryland. Her clients have included Livestrong, School Nutrition magazine, What's Up? Media, American Academy of Clinical Chemistry, SmartBrief and more. She has a formal education in personal training/nutrition and a bachelor's degree in journalism from The Pennsylvania State University.