On the other end of the spectrum, third wave coffee roasters spend hours cupping, roasting and developing roast profiles to get the most out of a green coffee that was often meticulously grown, harvested and processed. It may come as a surprise to you but the taste of coffee can vary considerably farm to farm and region to region. Drinking your coffee black helps you to appreciate and enjoy these differences.
Drinking coffee without adding sugar can reduce the chances of heart disease and inflammation, thereby lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease [5] . Studies have shown that coffee consumption lowers the risk of stroke by 20 per cent [6] , [7] , [8] . However, coffee may cause a slight increase in blood pressure, which doesn't cause a problem though.
Unlike drinking alcohol every day, drinking black coffee actually improves your liver. It’s been shown that people who drink four or more cups of coffee a day (24+ oz., or two “Tall” cups from Starbucks) have as much as an 80% lower rate of cirrhosis of the liver. People who drink this same amount also have as much as a 40% lower rate of developing liver cancer.

Many studies have proven that drinking caffeine during pregnancy might affect the growing fetus. Black coffee, being a rich source of caffeine, can increase the metabolic activity and heart rate. The growing fetus does not have enough strength to withstand this increase in heart rate. Black coffee and other caffeine drinks must be avoided during early pregnancy.


The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics spokesperson, Joy Dubost, claims that based on the amount of coffee consumed by Americans, it is one of the greatest sources of antioxidants their diet. In addition to antioxidants, coffee contains the essential nutrients chromium, potassium, niacin, vitamin E and magnesium. Coffee consumption alone can supply up to 8 percent of your chromium needs. Chromium plays a role in controlling your blood sugar and possibly lowering your LDL, or bad cholesterol. Much like tea, coffee contains plant chemical compounds, particularly flavonoids, which have been linked to a reduced risk of chronic disease.
Depending on how you create it though, this beverage can either taste truly sublime or be downright undrinkable. More confounding is that if you're not careful the results can potentially vary wildly, even when you use the same coffee beans from an identical bag roasted within the same batch and at the same time. This is why consistency is important in each step.

Ristretto is traditionally a short shot of espresso made with the normal amount of ground coffee but extracted with about half the amount of water. Since ristrettos are essentially the first half of a full-length extraction, the faster-to-extract compounds predominate in a ristretto. The opposite of a ristretto is a lungo, which is typically double the shot volume. Ristretto means “limited” or “restricted” in Italian whereas lungo means “long.”[citation needed]


According to the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) there is an ideal method for making coffee, called the Golden Cup Award, which will scientifically yield favorable and repeatable results. You should use between 3.25 and 4.25 ounces of coffee grounds per 64 ounces of water (90-120 grams of coffee to 1.9 liters of water). The water temperature must be at 200 degrees Fahrenheit (+ or - 2; that's equivalent to 93 Celcius) when it comes in contact with the grounds. Lastly, the total dissolved solids (TDS) measured in any given brew tastes best to most people when it falls between 1.15 and 1.35 percent.

Freddo Espresso is a foam-covered iced coffee made from espresso. It is found in every café and coffee shop in Greece. It is undoubtedly popular among the young people during summer, or on hot days. Because of the very hot summers in Greece, and the need to escape from the heat, people began to make cold variations of the popular coffee styles. It consists of two shots of espresso (30-50 ml), sugar, and ice (60-100 ml) 1:2 ( espresso shots:ice). The espresso is mixed with the sugar in a frapièra (a drink mixer). The frapiera mixes the coffee with the sugar, producing a foam from the oils of espresso, and lowers the temperature. The coffee is then poured over ice into its serving glass. The melting of the ice cubes dilutes the coffee and results in a desirable level of bitterness and strength.
Liver is one of the most vital organs of our body as it performs so many important functions. And did you know your liver loves black coffee? Black coffee helps prevent liver cancer, hepatitis, fatty liver disease and alcoholic cirrhosis. People who drink 4 or more cups of black coffee everyday have 80 per cent lower chances of developing any liver disease. Coffee helps by lowering the level of harmful liver enzymes in the blood.
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