Long Black: Often called the “American”. It is the ‘benchmark coffee without milk’. It is pure coffee made from one & one half shots of coffee extract made on 16gm of fresh ground beans producing 50ml of essence blended with steamed water. Served in a pre heated vitrified ceramic cup with the essence floated over the top of a cup filled with hot/boiling water. It is a standard espresso (Short Black) but lengthened by the addition of hot/boiling water.
Espresso is brewed by using an espresso machine to force a small amount of nearly boiling water and steam – about 86 to 95 °C (187 to 203 °F) – under pressure through finely ground and compacted coffee.[21][22] The espresso machine was patented in 1901 from an earlier 1884 machine,[23][24] and developed in Italy; with the invention of the Gaggia machine, espresso spread in popularity to the UK in the 1950s where it was more often drunk with milk as cappuccino due to the influence of the British milk bars,[25][26][27] then America in the 1980s where again it was mainly drunk with milk,[28] and then via coffeehouse chains it spread worldwide.[3] Espresso is generally denser than coffee brewed by other methods, having a higher concentration of suspended and dissolved solids; it generally has a creamy foam on top termed "crema".[29] Espresso is the base for a number of other coffee drinks, such as latte, cappuccino, macchiato, mocha, and Americano.[30]

Long Black: Often called the “American”. It is the ‘benchmark coffee without milk’. It is pure coffee made from one & one half shots of coffee extract made on 16gm of fresh ground beans producing 50ml of essence blended with steamed water. Served in a pre heated vitrified ceramic cup with the essence floated over the top of a cup filled with hot/boiling water. It is a standard espresso (Short Black) but lengthened by the addition of hot/boiling water.


4. Place the plunger lid back on top of the pot. Once the plunger is in place mix it around a bit as this will stop the grounds from settling in one place at the top of the jar and then after a minute or so you can then press the plunger down. However there are some coffee connoisseurs who actually prefer to press the plunger down as soon as they place the lid on. But the decision is yours as to when this happens.
Even if you're drinking calorie-free black coffee, you should stick to a moderate intake to avoid taking in too much caffeine. While small amounts of caffeine might boost thermogenesis, too much can make you jittery, interrupt your sleep and cause anxiety, depression or a fast heart rate. The FDA recommends up to 400 milligrams — approximately 4 to 5 cups of coffee daily — as the recommended upper limit for caffeine intake. If you're drinking more than 3 cups daily, choose decaf coffee for the extra cups.
Greek frappé (Café frappé) (Greek: φραπές) is a foam-covered iced coffee drink made from spray-dried instant coffee. It is very popular in Greece especially during summer, but has now spread on to other countries. There are numerous ways in which this coffee can be tailored to the individual's taste such as: all water-no milk; half-half; all milk and; varying levels of sweetness. Frappe is also extremely popular in the country of Cyprus where fresh milk is used as opposed to condensed. In French, when describing a drink, the word frappé means shaken or chilled; however, in popular Greek culture, the word frappé is predominantly taken to refer to the shaking associated with the preparation of a café frappé.[citation needed]
While the health benefits of coffee are still a debated topic; it is a generally accepted fact that a cup of black coffee is an insignificant calorie contribution. It isn’t a diet buster. Adding cream or sugar (the verdict is already in on how bad sugar is for you by-the-way) to your coffee takes a neutral (possibly healthy) drink and turns it into something with calories and thus something that should be evaluated. Drinking two to three cups of black coffee a day is not usually considered to be a problem, however, drinking two to three cups of a milky, sugary coffee drink a day is a habit most would consider unhealthy.

People who drink four or more cups of black coffee a day (24+ oz.) have a 20% lower chance of becoming depressed, and are over 50% less likely to commit suicide. Drinking coffee is literally a life saver, and something I wish more people would do more often for this specific reason. If you know someone struggling with depression, taking them out for a cup of coffee here and there can make all the difference.
A Carajillo is a Spanish drink combining coffee with brandy, whisky, anisette, or rum. It is typical of Spain and according to folk etymology, its origin dates to the Spanish occupation of Cuba. The troops combined coffee with rum to give them courage (coraje in Spanish, hence "corajillo" and more recently "carajillo"). There are many different ways of making a carajillo, ranging from black coffee with the spirit simply poured in to heating the spirit with lemon, sugar and cinnamon and adding the coffee last. A similar Italian drink is known as caffè corretto. The American version of a Spanish Coffee uses a heated sugar-rimmed Spanish coffee mug with 3/4 ounce of rum and 1/2 ounce of triple sec. The drink is then flamed to caramelize the sugar, with 2 ounces of coffee liqueur then added to put out the flame, and then topped off with 3 to 4 ounces of coffee, and whipped cream.
Coffee is brewed by placing the ground coffee in the empty beaker and adding hot (93-96 degrees Celsius, 200-205 degrees Fahrenheit) water, in proportions of about 28 grams (1 ounce) of coffee to 450 ml (15 fluid ounces) of water, more or less to taste. After approximately four minutes the plunger is pressed to separate the grounds and hold them at the bottom of the beaker, then the coffee is poured.[7] Coffee press users have different preferences for how long to wait before pressing the plunger, with some enthusiasts preferring to wait longer than four minutes.

Because the ground coffee beans in cold-brewed coffee never come into contact with heated water, the process of leaching flavor from the beans produces a chemical profile different from conventional brewing methods.[14][15] Coffee beans contain a number of constituent parts that are more soluble at higher temperatures, such as caffeine, oils and fatty acids. Brewing at a lower temperature results in lower acidity and lower caffeine content when brewed in equal volume.[16][17] It is around 65 to 70 percent less acidic than hot drip coffee or espresso, per part.[14] Although less caffeine is extracted with the cold brew method, a higher coffee-to-water ratio is often used, between 2 and 2 1/2 times. This may compensate for this difference in solubility, resulting in a brew with equal, if not more, caffeine (although this is unlikely).[17][18]
As usual, an excellent and well-argued article. I spent 20 years making coffee I didn’t like and putting milk in it to turn it into coffee I did like (I kicked the sugar habit over 25 years ago, realising it was seriously bad for my health). It’s only in the last few years, and through writing the Coffee Spot , that I’ve discovered that I can make coffee I like without having to put anything in it.

Again, it's the caffeine working here. Your recommended maximum amount of caffeine is 400 milligrams, roughly the amount that you’ll get from 4 cups of coffee. If you’re caffeine-sensitive, be careful with coffee. You are probably already aware what amount and what kind of coffee suits, or doesn't suit you. The amount of caffeine that is safe for human consumption is actually written in our DNA.
Drinking more coffee is linked to a lower risk of depression, according to a review of 26 studies published in Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry in 2016. For each cup of coffee consumed per day, the risk of depression decreased by 8 percent, the researchers found. However, it's worth noting that too much caffeine can cause problems in people who also suffer from anxiety, negating any beneficial effects the coffee can have on depression risk.
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