Drinking more coffee is linked to a lower risk of depression, according to a review of 26 studies published in Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry in 2016. For each cup of coffee consumed per day, the risk of depression decreased by 8 percent, the researchers found. However, it's worth noting that too much caffeine can cause problems in people who also suffer from anxiety, negating any beneficial effects the coffee can have on depression risk.
Cuban tradition is to drink coffee strong and sweet, often mixing the sugar with the coffee beans before brewing. The traditional method of brewing coffee was a filter method using a cloth cone; this has mostly been replaced with an aluminium cafetera or coffeemaker—in tourist areas some cafés will have an espresso machine, though espresso machines are expensive, so espresso is not a common drink for most Cubans. Though quality coffee is grown in Cuba, it is expensive, so most Cubans drink coffee imported from Puerto Rico, and often mixed with ground peas. The Cuban habit of brewing coffee with sugar has spread to Miami, West Palm Beach, Tampa and the Keys, in Florida, US, where espresso is the preferred brewing method and an espresso brewed with sugar is termed Café Cubano, Cuban coffee, Cuban espresso, cafecito, Cuban pull, or Cuban shot. Sometimes demerara sugar is used, and sometimes the sugar (white or brown) is not brewed with the coffee, but is placed in the cup as the coffee is dripped into it, then stirred into a froth. Variations on the Miami café Cubano are with a splash of milk - cortadito; and with steamed milk - café con leche.
The method of preparing these three black coffees, namely Black eye, Red eye and Dead eye, are similar except the proportion of espresso added in each. These 3 black coffees are prepared by adding shots of espresso with dripped coffee and do not contain sugar or milk. In “Black Eye Coffee” two shots of espresso are added with dripped coffee; in Red eye, a single shot of espresso is added with dripped coffee and in Dead eye coffee, three shots of espresso are added with dripped coffee.
Coffee is brewed by placing the ground coffee in the empty beaker and adding hot (93-96 degrees Celsius, 200-205 degrees Fahrenheit) water, in proportions of about 28 grams (1 ounce) of coffee to 450 ml (15 fluid ounces) of water, more or less to taste. After approximately four minutes the plunger is pressed to separate the grounds and hold them at the bottom of the beaker, then the coffee is poured. Coffee press users have different preferences for how long to wait before pressing the plunger, with some enthusiasts preferring to wait longer than four minutes.