Café Touba is the spiritual drink of Senegal, named after Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba Mbacké (known as Serigne Touba) and the holy city of Touba in Senegal. During the roasting process, the coffee beans are mixed with grains of selim, and sometimes other spices, and ground into powder after roasting. The drink is prepared using a filter, similar to plain coffee. Sugar is often added before drinking.
According to professor Achmad Subagio of the Research Institute of the University of Jember, drinking black coffee twice a day prevents the risk of Parkinson's disease because caffeine elevates the dopamine levels in the body. Parkinson's disease affects the brain's nerve cells that produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter responsible for transmitting signals between the nerve cells of the brain.
The National Cancer Institute has reported that men who drink coffee regularly are less likely to develop prostate cancer. A 60 percent reduction in the risk of developing lethal prostate cancer was found in men who drank 6 or more cups of coffee per day. Even 1 to 3 cups of coffee reduced the risk. Four or more cups of coffee per day have also been shown to reduce the incidence of colon cancer. Furthermore, researchers discovered that people who drink coffee are 50 percent less likely to develop liver cancer than their non-drinking counterparts. Additional studies have linked coffee consumption to lower rates of breast and rectal cancer.
A shot or small portion of unsweetened coffee, now usually made either using an espresso machine or a moka pot, but traditionally made using a cloth drip, usually served in cups made for the purpose, called "tazitas de pocillo." It is widely drunk in Latin America, usually as an afternoon or after-dinner coffee. The defining feature is the size, usually half to a quarter the size of the usual ~8 US fluid ounces (240 ml) coffee cups. There are a number of small-sized drinks that use tazitas de pocillo, including such sweetened varieties as café cubano and café cortado, but these are usually not called a pocillo; rather, the Spanish diminutive suffix "-ito" is usually added to the name of the drink wanted in a pocillo size cup. For example, a pocillo-sized cortado is usually called a cortadito.
My mom's been a long-time lover of coffee. I can still remember her sending me up to the counter for her usual when I was a kid. “Double-tall nonfat extra hot latte with extra foam, no whip.” We lived in the coffee-loving city of Seattle before coffee was uber chic, and I like to think I inherited some of my mom's refined cafe preferences. But the fact remains that at 20-something years old, I still hadn't figured out how to make black coffee that didn't taste like mud to me. So I snooped around her kitchen when we were up to visit last weekend to see how she does it. “What's this coffee brand on your counter, mom? Gevalia?”
Kelsey Casselbury is a freelance writer and editor based in central Maryland. Her clients have included Livestrong, School Nutrition magazine, What's Up? Media, American Academy of Clinical Chemistry, SmartBrief and more. She has a formal education in personal training/nutrition and a bachelor's degree in journalism from The Pennsylvania State University.