Research proved that people who drank coffee regularly has 57% lower risk of having gouts or the arthritis in the big toe joint. The antioxidant contained in black coffee s known to be able to decrease the insulin and uric acid in the body. For those who have already had gouts, drinking black coffee may relieve the symptom such as painful and swollen joints.

Ristretto is traditionally a short shot of espresso made with the normal amount of ground coffee but extracted with about half the amount of water. Since ristrettos are essentially the first half of a full-length extraction, the faster-to-extract compounds predominate in a ristretto. The opposite of a ristretto is a lungo, which is typically double the shot volume. Ristretto means “limited” or “restricted” in Italian whereas lungo means “long.”[citation needed]
A 28-year study, eventually published in 2017 in Alzheimer's and Dementia, the journal of the Alzheimer's Association, determined that four to five cups of a coffee a day – a level deemed "moderate" – led to a decreased risk of dementia during that time period. Those who drank coffee in moderate levels had less medial temporal atrophy, which is linked to Alzheimer's disease, compared to those who drank three or fewer cups a day, including those who didn't drink any.
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