Ristretto is traditionally a short shot of espresso made with the normal amount of ground coffee but extracted with about half the amount of water. Since ristrettos are essentially the first half of a full-length extraction, the faster-to-extract compounds predominate in a ristretto. The opposite of a ristretto is a lungo, which is typically double the shot volume. Ristretto means “limited” or “restricted” in Italian whereas lungo means “long.”[citation needed]

Hammerhead: A coffee drink only served in the USA. It is an American term for a shot of espresso in a coffee cup that is topped up with drip-filtered coffee. As Kris Rosvold explains in the comments: In Oregon, the hammerhead is usually known as a red eye and uses 2 shots of espresso topped up in a 16oz travel mug with drip coffee. It's also sometimes called a "shot in the dark".

Hammerhead: A coffee drink only served in the USA. It is an American term for a shot of espresso in a coffee cup that is topped up with drip-filtered coffee. As Kris Rosvold explains in the comments: In Oregon, the hammerhead is usually known as a red eye and uses 2 shots of espresso topped up in a 16oz travel mug with drip coffee. It's also sometimes called a "shot in the dark".


Originating in Australia and similar to the Mazagran, the minimal Ice Shot is a single shot of fresh espresso poured into an ordinary latté glass that has been filled with ice. The hot coffee, in melting some of the ice is diluted, re-freezing to a granita-like texture. The addition of a single scoop of ice-cream on top is a popular variant. No milk, sugar, extra flavouring or cream are involved.[citation needed]


A 28-year study, eventually published in 2017 in Alzheimer's and Dementia, the journal of the Alzheimer's Association, determined that four to five cups of a coffee a day – a level deemed "moderate" – led to a decreased risk of dementia during that time period. Those who drank coffee in moderate levels had less medial temporal atrophy, which is linked to Alzheimer's disease, compared to those who drank three or fewer cups a day, including those who didn't drink any.
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